A 153 million ICO in action

A $153 million ICO in action

One of the largest-ever ICOs was a project known as Bancor

which raised $153 million in around three hours. The digital coin issued is called the Bancor network token (BNT) and it was built on the Ethereum platform. A key aspect of Ethereum is the so-called smart contract functionality. Smart contracts are contracts that automatically execute when certain conditions are met from all interested parties. The automation can help to speed the process up, ensuring no mistakes along the way.

Bancor is creating a product that rivals cryptocurrency exchanges based on smart contracts. An exchange matches buyers and sellers and essentially acts as a middleman. But, Bancor’s network allows users to convert one cryptocurrency into another with low conversion costs and without fears of low liquidity. It automatically balances supply and demand and works out the correct conversion price of one coin into another.

It does this through what it calls “smart tokens” which can be generated through the Bancor network. These smart tokens or digital coins hold one or more other cryptocurrencies in reserve which means that it can always be traded. For example, if there was a digital coin that only had a few thousand users, it would be difficult to trade as there would not be a large pool of people wanting to buy and sell it. But if that digital token had a popular and large reserve cryptocurrency like ether then there would always be liquidity to trade. But ICOs are not flawless. As a result of the large demand for BNT, the Ethereum network became congested during the coin offering last year, leading to delays for buyers. CNBC spoke to Galia Benartzi, the co-founder of Bancor, and asked her about the ICO process and the company’s ambitions .

Why was an ICO the right route to go down?

At Bancor we believe the term ICO is actually a misnomer because it implies a similarity to an IPO. ICOs, or as we prefer to call them "Token Generation Events" (TGEs), are fundamentally different than IPOs in that an IPO is conducted by a mature company with a live product and revenue, while a TGE represents the birth of a new currency which powers a network.

We decided to launch a TGE because we had a design for a promising token — BNT, which could connect many tokens into a network — the Bancor Network — and make them instantly interchangeable, without needing to match buyers and sellers, without relying on volume or market makers, and without fees or barriers to listing. During the TGE, more than 10,000 users contributed to the project by purchasing BNT. These 10,000 BNT holders instantly seeded the network in a way that no traditional launch would have been able to do. This momentum is essential for a network's growth and a TGE allowed us to create alignment with early adopters in a way that increases the network's chance of success.

What have you learned along the process?

The industry has matured a great deal since Bancor held its TGE in June, 2017 and yet still has a tremendous way to go. We are learning more every day than ever seemed possible, as seemingly disparate fields from economics, history, psychology, system design, network effects, finance, law, ethics, sustainability and others converge in the blockchain space. Some of the main learnings are actually in areas that the Bancor Protocol aims to shed light on. For example, in today's ecosystem, one of the main jobs of a token issuer is to plan for its liquidity, via costly exchange listings and market makers. We hope that in the future, token creator's will be able to focus on their networks, products and users, when liquidity is fair and free for all.

Where are you in the development of the network?

We are aiming to make cryptocurrencies accessible to a wide array of users, including those who are brand new to crypto. To this end, we launched the Bancor Wallet which allows users to log in from any mobile device or social messaging account (Telegram, WeChat, Messenger or SMS) and instantly buy and sell more than 100 tokens, without having to be matched in an exchange to a buyer or seller.

What will your tokens be used for?

All tokens on the Bancor Network hold an amount of BNT (Bancor’s Network Token) in their smart contracts. This links together each token in the Bancor Network, allowing tokens to be instantly interchangeable for one another at continuously calculated rates. As users buy BNT (or any token in the Bancor Network), it increases the liquidity of each token in relation to the others, creating more predictable and efficient token conversions for all users of the network. BNT is the hub network token for a decentralized global liquidity network that allows anyone to launch a viable currency with continuous liquidity based on its actual usage.

Article Produced By
CNBC

https://www.cnbc.com/2018/07/13/initial-coin-offering-ico-what-are-they-how-do-they-work.html

ICOs Legality scams and dangers

ICOs Legality, scams and dangers

With any new technology, particularly where large amounts of money is involved,

there will be scrutiny from regulators and scams. ICOs have seen both. But the new nature of these digital token issuances has meant that the regulatory landscape globally is fragmented with each country looking at ICOs in different ways.

Are ICOs legal?

The short answer: it depends where you are. It’ll be hard to go through every single country in the world, but let’s look at the major markets. China, which was once a prolific market for cryptocurrencies, has come down hard on the industry. Last year, the People's Bank of China declared ICOs as illegal, warning people of the risks involved in investing in them. Shortly after, South Korea followed, banning raising money through virtual currencies. In the United States, there are no specific regulations for ICOs, but depending on how the digital coin is classed, it may fall under the jurisdiction of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The regulator is in charge of overseeing trading in various financial products. If the SEC deems that a coin is a “security,” then the company behind it may have to register with the regulator.

The SEC has been very vocal however on warning people about the dangers of investing in ICOs. “As with any other type of potential investment, if a promoter guarantees returns, if an opportunity sounds too good to be true, or if you are pressured to act quickly, please exercise extreme caution and be aware of the risk that your investment may be lost,” the SEC says on its website. The watchdog also issued a warning last year to celebrities who endorse ICOs saying that they may need to disclose information about the relationship with the company if the digital coin is deemed to be a security.

Elsewhere, in Europe, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) released guidance on ICOs last year. The regulator said that ICOs that qualify as financial instruments could fall under the relevant laws to do with anti-money laundering or investment legislati Some countries are attempting to actually create new rules in order to bring ICOs into the regulatory fold. For example, the government in Malta recently approved three new bills related to cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology. One of those new laws aims to bring a regulatory regime to ICOs.

Similarly, in Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates, the regulator has published guidelines on launching ICOs. Under the guidelines, companies wishing to execute an ICO must approach the Financial Services Regulatory Authority to see whether it will fall under the body's regulation. Companies will also have to publish a prospectus, just like a firm would for an initial public offering (IPO) on the stock market. Any market intermediaries, or secondary market operators dealing with ICOs must be approved by the FSRA.

“If you put a regulator’s lens on, regulators are saying ‘oh my gosh there is a concentration of crypto capital that is in these ICOs, these people aren’t in the financial system, what is happening to the money’,” Lawrence Wintermeyer, a principal at advisory business Capstone, told CNBC. “There is a huge concern retail people might be exposed to this.” Many countries are looking into how to regulate ICOs but there’s clearly a disparity around the world. The lack of regulation however is a factor behind major scams — one of the biggest issues right now with ICOs.

Scams and dangers

Investing in ICOs is risky business for a number of reasons. Often people are putting money into products that don’t exist yet. While this may not sound too dissimilar to say very early stage investing in other start-ups, the people placing bets on ICOs are usually unsophisticated investors. These projects have high failure rates too. Already, hundreds of coins are dead, meaning the projects behind them were scams, a joke or didn’t materialize. Dead Coins is a website that lists all the cryptocurrencies that fall into those categories. So far, it has identified just over 800 digital tokens that it considers dead. These coins are worthless and trade at less than 1 cent.

And because of the lack of regulation, scams are rife in the industry. One example uncovered by CNBC earlier this year was a project called Giza which claimed to be developing a super-secure device that would allow people to store cryptocurrencies. Scammers in this case managed to raise more than $2 million in an ICO, and eventually run off with the funds without delivering any product. A bad actor or actors used a fake LinkedIn profile and copied pictures from another user's Instagram to create a false persona — and successfully drew more than 1,000 investors into the ICO project.“Are there fraudulent projects? Yes. Are there ill conceived sales that have not thought through potential regulatory issues? Yes. Are there poor projects that will ultimately fail? Naturally.”

Investors are still trying to get their money back but because of the lack of regulation, there is very little consumer protection in the space. Another high-profile scam involved a company called Centra Tech Inc. It was an ICO backed by champion boxer Floyd Mayweather. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) charged the founders with carrying out a fraudulent ICO. Even successful ICOs have their problems. Bancor, whose coin offering we detailed above, suffered a security breach that saw $13.5 million worth of digital tokens stolen. Many experts in the field however have predicted that ICOs are here to stay and that they will become professional.

“Are there fraudulent projects? Yes. Are there ill-conceived sales that have not thought through potential regulatory issues? Yes. Are there poor projects that will ultimately fail? Naturally. However, amongst these there are many, many deeply innovative projects amongst which a handful will be gamechangers,” Richard Muirhead, founding partner at Fabric Ventures, an investment fund focused on blockchain projects, told CNBC. “If 2017 was the year of ICO hype, then 2018-2020 will be the years of decentralized networks development which will be focused on shipping working code and building communities.”

Article Produced By
CNBS

https://www.cnbc.com/2018/07/13/initial-coin-offering-ico-what-are-they-how-do-they-work.html

Telegram Tech Promised In ICO Vulnerable to Attack Researchers Say

Telegram Tech Promised In ICO Vulnerable to Attack, Researchers Say

With $1.7 billion in the bank following its initial coin offering (ICO),

Telegram has released its first crypto-friendly feature – but security researchers are skeptical. As detailed in a blog post published today, Virgil Security, a U.S.-based startup, has identified several weaknesses in the new identity verification app, called Passport. While the company praised Telegram for publishing the application's API as open source, allowing the code to be checked by other experts, Virgil Security detailed two problems with the app: how it encrypts data and how it protects stored data. "Their commitment to openness gives security practitioners the opportunity to review their implementation and, ideally, help improve it," Virgil Security's Alexey Ermishkin wrote on the company's blog,

adding:

"Unfortunately Passport's security disappoints in several key ways."

Telegram has never publicly announced or verified the existence of its billion-dollar ICO. But as documents started to leak earlier this year, it became clear that the company, more widely known for its chat app, aimed to compete with many of the services – from filesharing to encrypted browsing – that crypto startups had already proposed.

Plus, it wanted to bring blockchain-based payments to the Telegram chat app, which in recent years has become popular among the crypto community. Payments and identity verification go hand-in-hand, making Passport a natural early offering from the company. Plus, disrupting the digital ID incumbents like Equifax, which keep data in centralized databases vulnerable to breach and abuse, has long been a shared goal of the cryptocurrency community, so it's is a fitting place for Telegram to start.

In its blog post about the new product, Telegram promises that "your identity documents and personal data will be stored in the Telegram cloud using end-to-end encryption. It is encrypted with a password that only you know, so Telegram has no access to the data you store in your Telegram passport." It goes on to promise that, eventually, this data will be stored in a decentralized fashion, Identity was one of the components of the ambitious blockchain-based system that Telegram promised in its ICO technical whitepaper. But from the looks of Virgil Security's findings, Telegram needs to go back to the drawing board.

Brute force

Virgil Security's chief critique of Passport's security is the way it encrypts its passwords. In announcing Passport, Telegram released a considerable amount of information about how the system works. In particular, Virgil Security focuses on the fact that Telegram uses SHA-512 to hash passwords. "It's 2018 and one top-level GPU can brute-force check about 1.5 billion SHA-512 hashes per second," they write.

It goes on to estimate that with enough computers, these passwords could be busted for anywhere from $135 to $5 each, depending on the strength of the passwords users chose. However, before an attacker could begin its attack, it would need to first breach Telegram itself, as Virgil acknowledges.

"To access the password hashes, the attack would have to be internal to Telegram. The ways that could happen are numerous — insider threat, spearphish, one rogue USB stick, etc," Virgil Security co-founder Dmitry Dain told CoinDesk. And if lots of users begin using and in turn loading this data into Telegram's Passport, it will make the company a very attractive target. Telegram has long been criticized for taking its own approach to cryptography, rather than relying on established standards. That said, Telegram's model has not been known to have been broken so far.

Unsigned data

The other danger to users Virgil Security critiques is a bit more nuanced: the fact that the data uploaded to Passport isn't signed. By cryptographically signing data (an integral part of blockchain architecture broadly), users can quickly verify the data was loaded there by the person who claimed to have loaded it and it hasn't been changed. Without a cryptographic signature, an attacker could change some part of the data and no one would know.

The Virgil Security post argues:

"Now, when people see 'end-to-end encrypted,' they believe that their data will safely be sent to a third party without worries of it being decrypted or tampered with. Unfortunately, Passport users will have a false sense of confidence."

Yet, with Virgil Security's critiques and the newness of the product, it should be relatively simple for Telegram to harden its security (Virgil Security is one provider of end-to-end encryption). Telegram did not immediately reply to a request for comment.

Article Produced By
Brady Dale

Brady Dale is a reporter who has previously written for Fortune, Technical.ly Brooklyn, Next City and Motherboard, among others. He grew up in Kansas and lives in Brooklyn.

https://www.coindesk.com/telegrams-post-ico-id-app-vulnerable-to-attack-researchers-say/

TRON TRX Unveils Secret Projects and Announces TRX Airdrop

TRON (TRX) Unveils Secret Projects and Announces TRX Airdrop

 

The much anticipated TRON (TRX) secret project

has been unveiled and the resilience of the community is set to be rewarded with a TRX airdrop according to a series of announcements from Justin Sun and the TRON Foundation. Last month’s promise appears to have been fulfilled and now the platform has introduced Atlas as the secret project.

Project Atlas will add more efficiency on the platform as TRON seeks to integrate BitTorrent into its system, since the acquisition of the “torrenting outfit”, many enthusiasts have been wondering how it will help the coin to remain relevant in the market and reality seems to be downing. The announcement comes at a time when the TRX price is struggling and this might mean a breakout in the coming days now that the network is fully independent.

TRON, TVM and BitTorrent Implications

During the Independence Day celebrations, Justin Sun, the TRON founder, hinted about the TRON Virtual Machine and a secret project and the community was anticipating the unveiling of BitTorrent only to be surprised with the introduction of project Atlas. Project Atlas will is a major boost to the entire TRON framework that will see the Mainnet and the coin scale the heights in efficiency.

The project is reediness for the anticipated 100million plus BitTorrent users into the TRON Mainnet. The July 30 news has caught the community by surprise and is set to spur increased activity around TRX as this will see increased reliability, high transaction speeds and security for a truly decentralized platform. TRON and BitTorrent will work together for a better future for the entire community. The TRX coin will be the biggest gainer in terms of adoption and value growth. With the launch of TVM, the Justin Sun announcement on twitter

says in part:

“#TRON’s # TVM beta launched today! 15 GRs have been replaced by #TRONSR Block height has reached 1M+. 40+exchanges have completed token migration to $TRX, Project Atlas with @BitTorrent will bring forth great future for both! TRON to the future!”

The statement further adds that:

“The acquisition enables TRO and BitTorrent to become the Largest decentralized ecosystem in the world. Currently we are exploring the possibility of using the TRON protocol to improve the BitTorrent protocol, in order to make BitTorrent protocol faster and lengthen the lifespan of BitTorrent swarms. I hope the integration of TRON and BitTorrent will allow both parties work better as one in the future.”

TRON goal is to beat Ethereum by increasing the number of transactions per day and this will see TRX have more market influence in the future:

“The TRON network will serve as the underlying protocol of the Secret Project. Hundreds of millions of BT users across the globe will become part of the TRON ecosystem. BT will be the largest application on the TRON network, which will allow TRON surpass Ethereum on daily transactions and become the most influential public blockchain in the world.”

TRON (TRX) Airdrop Announced

In a move seen by many as appreciating the support from the community in the last three months, Sun has announced a TRX airdrop that will run till 3rd August. The announcement came soon after the TVM beta launch. Through his twitter account,

the TRON founder has said:

“#TRON #TRONICS, here are some $TRX for you! Watch @justinsuntron’s live stream now and celebrate #TVM launch with us! The first place has a chance to win 3333$TRX! Go and get your #TRX! Hurry up! Click the link to win $TRX rewards.”

Already there are more than 3,500 entrants and to take part, toy need follow the TRON fonder on twitter, retweet his posts, follow the TRON foundation on Instagram and as a participant; you need to have your referral code. However, after the announcement, TRX price is still in the red trading at $0.035371 after shedding 4.96% to the dollar and 4.75% to Bitcoin. Many TRX holders and followers had expected the good news to give the coin a push north but only a total of $191.6 worth of TRX have changed hands in the last 24-hour trading period.

Article Produced By
Cami Albert

Cami Albert is an expert in blockchain technology and an ardent Altcoin analyst. Cami has worked on various cryptocurrencies projects and has vast experience in providing advice to digital market investors.

https://cryptoglobalist.com/2018/07/31/tron-trx-unveils-secret-projects-and-announces-trx-airdrop/

Curbing the Menace of ICO Fraud in the Cryptocurrency Industry

Curbing the Menace of ICO Fraud in the Cryptocurrency Industry

to the cryptocurrency industry. More than 81 percent of all ICOs are fraud. Most investors and enthusiast are unaware of these pump and dump schemes. Due to it unregulated nature, most of these ICOs successfully swindle individuals get away with it.

The Emergence of Cryptocurrency Research Centers

In recent times, specialized cryptocurrency research centers have been established. These centers were created to analyze cryptocurrency market conditions and information which analysts provide. Such analysts must have had experience working with large securities companies and private equity fund firms. The primary objective of these centers is to help individuals better understand the dynamic cryptocurrency market from an investor’s view. ICOs have continued to be plagued by these frauds, and these special centers are in place to curb the disease amid a regulatory vacuum.

Notable Strides Made So Far

Chain Partners Inc., South Korea’s first blockchain company builder, announced on July 29 that it was hiring employees for its research center. Cryptocurrency analysts who have five-year work experience in the investment banking industry stand a better a chance being hired by the company.  The Chain Partners Research Center is headed by Han Dae-hoon, the former analyst at SK Securities Co. and Shinhan Investment Corp.

The center is taking important steps, as it already presented a cryptocurrency index for the first time in Korea. Apart from this, a daily report analyzing the cryptocurrency market home and abroad is published. Another important step the Korean research center is trying to take is developing an index like the KOSPI 200. This can show the price trend and transaction data of major cryptocurrencies, like Bitcoin and Ethereum. China Partners is not the only center willing to have an index. Bloomberg, together with US fund industry legend, Michael Novogratz, created Bloomberg Galaxy Crypto Index (BGCI). The BGCI also bases its calculations based on cryptocurrencies with the most market capitalizations and transactions, including Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Ripple.

Regularizing the Cryptocurrency Research Center Scene

Another company which recently launched its own research center, is Coinone, South Korea’s third-largest cryptocurrency exchange. The primary goal of the center is to present a premium standard for cryptocurrency analysis. Like Chain Partners Research Center, it also releases a report on cryptocurrency analysis and weekly market conditions. Streami Inc. is not left out, as it recently received an ISO/IEC270001 information security certificated by the International Organization for Standardization. The company which runs cryptocurrency exchange, Gopax, is gearing towards providing Cryptopic that contains essential information on crypto investment.

Binance, one of the largest digital currency exchanges by market capitalization, is set to launch an application app called Binance Info. The company is test running the app by recruiting pre-users before the official release. According to a Binance official, Binance Info would provide information on about 1,200 coins and industry news.

Article Produced By
Osato Avan-Nomayo

https://ethereumworldnews.com/curbing-the-menace-of-ico-fraud-in-the-cryptocurrency-industry/

Airdrops Explained

After their explosion in popularity and press in 2017,

most people know at least a little bit about cryptocurrencies and blockchain. However, there are many terms and phrases within the industry that many might not understand to the fullest extent. One of these terms is “airdrop”, which is one of the hottest things in the crypto industry. If you don’t quite understand what an airdrop is or why they’re important, don’t worry. This article will take an in-depth look at airdrops and explain all you need to know to understand them.

What is an Airdrop?

Before getting into the details of airdrops and why they take place, we need to first introduce you to the concept and idea. In the simplest form, an airdrop is free coins for certain individuals. They are essentially the process when a cryptocurrency enterprise distributes tokens to a user’s wallet, completely free of charge. Airdrops are commonly done by start-ups, but established companies or platforms can do them as well. The coins that are airdropped often are fairly low in value (at least initially), or are just used within the ecosystem of a platform, but definitely have the potential to grow. Plus, who is going to say no to free coins?

A recent example of an airdrop is the CLO (Calisto) airdrop for ETC (Ethereum Classic) owners. The airdrop took place at the 5,500,000th block of the ETC blockchain, which occurred about a month ago on March 5th 2018. This airdrop meant that each holder of ETC at the time the 5,500,000th block was processed, received an equal amount of CLO, for free. So if you had 15 ETC at the snapshot of the 5,500,000th block, you will automatically receive 15 CLO into your wallet, without any cost to you. In addition to this, some companies will airdrop their own tokens, while others will airdrop the token to holders of a more popular coin or token, to generate more buzz and get some eyes on their platform.

Types of Airdrops

In general, there are a few different kinds of airdrops and how they can come about. They can arise from forks, ICO purchases, or just random freebies from a company. Arguably the most well-known example of an airdrop is when Bitcoin Cash (BTC), the hard fork of Bitcoin, gave current Bitcoin holders the equal amount of Bitcoin Cash. So if you had one Bitcoin, you got one Bitcoin Cash for free. Currently, each BTC is trading at over $700 (but has reached much higher in the past), which is a pretty good deal to have gotten for free.

When it comes to finding out about different types of airdrops, a company will either announce it beforehand to generate buzz, or they will simply airdrop the coins as a surprise without any warning. If you are curious about upcoming airdrops and how to become involved, a good resource to follow is AirdropAlert. This website gives you times an information for past, previous and future airdrops and is a great and handy tool for keeping track of them. Of course, as we mentioned, sometimes airdrops will be done without warning, so not every airdrop that occurs will appear on the site.

Why Would Companies do an Airdrop?

You might be wondering why a company would simply give away tokens for free. Well, the decision is made for a number of different reasons. The first one related to marketing. An airdrop can be a way for a company or platform to spread awareness to interested investors and enthusiasts, without having to spend a lot of money on marketing.  There are so many cryptocurrencies in the space, so getting noticed and more awareness is always a positive.

And what better way to get people talking or interested in your platform than offering them something for free? It is a pretty sweet deal for investors as you don’t really have to do anything normally, other than hold a certain type of coin, to reap the rewards and benefits. It is a win-win for the cryptocurrency themselves (as airdrops often lead to a rise in coin prices and an increase in exposure) and for consumers (free coins are always a good thing).

Another reason for an airdrop is to reward loyal customers. Companies who have a large and active community, or who have been doing pretty well, might decide to reward their customers, users and token holders. This will not only excite the users, but also might lead them to continue using the platform and participating in the ecosystem. One last common reason for airdrops is for lead generation. Generating leads and gathering useful information is very important for marketing. In exchange for airdropping free coins, a company or platform might ask users to complete online forms that contain valuable information for targeted marketing purposes.

How to Participate in Airdrops

Participating in Airdrops is as simple as holding a certain token or coin in an Ethereum or Bitcoin wallet (depending on what the specific airdrop requires). Any wallet should do, though some might require a specific wallet such as a non-exchange ERC-20 compatible wallet. The wallet also needs to be active to ensure it is owned by a human and not one of 1000 randomly generated wallets with the sole purpose of getting more of the airdropped token.

Also, while airdrops are free coins, you still need to do your research and remain vigilant to ensure you don’t get scammed. This means you should never send any private keys, never send any money, and check official sources to make sure that the airdrop is legitimate and real. Safety is the most important thing, so ensure you are comfortable with any company or platform before investing in or using them. In conclusion, hopefully, this article has helped you understand everything about airdrops such as why they occur, why companies are okay with doing them, how to participate and more!

Article Produced By

Kale Havervold

https://www.allcrypto.com/guides/airdrops-explained/

WTF is an ICO?

WTF is an ICO?

It wasn’t very long ago that bitcoin felt nascent,

laughable and small. In the ensuing years, bitcoin has matured, become far less risible and grown massively. Underscoring bitcoin’s maturation, the currency set new price records this week as the value of a single coin crossed the $2,000 threshold. Since bitcoin was announced in 2009, and certainly since I first wrote about it in 2013, the ecosystem of cryptocurrencies has exploded.

Cryptocurrencies have expanded since the days bitcoin shared some of the media’s spotlight with litecoin and the silly-by-design dogecoin. It was a time when Mt. Gox ruled, cupcake shops could become media darlings by accepting the digital currency and pizza was a critical bitcoin-pricing metric. Now, there are dozens of cryptocurrencies worth eight figures, and the birth pace of new entrants is accelerating.

In that particular milieu of freshly launched coins is a newly famous transaction type we need to understand called the “Initial Coin Offering” or ICO. An ICO is akin to an IPO, but in temporal reverse (sort of). Although confusing, it has recently acquired prominence as a favored way to launch a new cryptocurrency. But as is typical of nascent cryptoproducts, there are legal questions and unethical players in the mix. So let’s explore what an ICO is in the current cryptocurrency market.

ICO basics

An ICO is a fundraising tool that trades future cryptocoins in exchange for cryptocurrencies of immediate, liquid value. You give the ICO bitcoin or ethereum, and you get some of Billy’s New Super Great Coin or the infamous CrunchCoin. The Financial Times calls ICOs “unregulated issuances of cryptocoins where investors can raise money in bitcoin or other [cryptocurrencies],” which is accurate, especially if you underline the word “unregulated.” We’ll get to that in a moment. Sticking close to the older financial publications, The Economist also took a look at the financing mechanism, describing what you buy in an ICO in

the following fashion:

ICO “coins” are essentially digital coupons, tokens issued on an indelible distributed ledger, or blockchain, of the kind that underpins bitcoin, a crypto-currency. That means they can easily be traded, although unlike shares they do not confer ownership rights. […] Investors hope that successful projects will cause tokens’ value to rise.

The referenced value increase is critical to understanding the appeal of ICOs. These are not transactions of love. They are investments made in hopes of quick, strong returns. Notably, not all ICOs are for cryptos that will maintain their own blockchain. According to the crypto-focused Smith + Crown research group, some ICOs are actually “launching ‘meta-tokens’ built on Ethereum, Bitcoin, NXT or others.”

After all, why not.

So ICOs can be coins on top of coins funded by the transfer of other cryptos to accounts in the hunt for what’s next. That might sound crazy, but it’s hot times in the crypto world. And that heat is keeping ICOs bubbling. The same Economist piece, published in April of 2017, notes: “[n]early $250m has already been invested in [ICOs], of which $107m alone has flowed in this year,” a metric that it attributes to the aforementioned Smith + Crown. That is a lot of money, making ICOs large in terms of their sheer dollar-scale. It’s therefore not hard to understand why more traditional business publications are paying attention. Following the money is their jam. In short: ICOs are the new funding slingshot by which nascent cryptos are flung into the world.

Thieves, lies and laws

As with any boom, there are bad actors to be found in the land of ICOs. Given bitcoin and the larger cryptocurrency world’s deep tradition of enduring bad behavior, it is not a surprise that ICOs are attracting humans of base intent. ICO fraud and skullduggery is common enough that a quick search yields heart-melting headlines like “Ver Backed Qtum Founder Ran Previous ICO Scam,”  “To everyone that bought into the Matchpool ICO, it looks like it was maybe a scam…,” and “A Digital Currency Scam is Misusing the Rothschild Family Name.” All of the articles are from this year to date. In the world of ICOs, fraud is never hard to find. Add in regular sums of incompetence that any new venture could fall prey to, and ICOs feel a bit Old West.

Laws

But what about regulation, you reasonably protest. Surely that must exist to protect consumers? Returning to Smith + Crown, skirting usual rules concerning fundraising is nearly normal in the realm of ICOs — at least partially explaining why guard rails in crypto offerings may remain

a homegrown affair:

Most ICOs today are marketed as ‘software presale tokens’ akin to giving early access to an online game to early supporters. In order to try to avoid legal requirements that come with any form of a security sale, many ICOs today use language such as ‘crowdsale’ or ‘donation’ instead of ICOs.

So regulation is out of the mix for now. There is an argument to be made that a dearth of regulatory oversight is actually good, as it allows the ICO market to iterate and innovate quickly. It is a reasonable(ish) argument and likely technically correct, but that doesn’t mitigate the potential for unsophisticated investors to be preyed upon. Caveat emptor and moral hazard are fine arguments in favor of no rules regarding ICOs and cryptos, but if the market wants to keep growing, it will need to do more to attract consistently larger pools of capital.

Bubble me this

Is there a chance that ICOs will slow? Of course, but the forces behind them run a bit deeper than we might have first guessed. CryptoHustle makes the related point in a recent article that “ICO mania is likely due to early Ethereum adopters making serious returns after the last bull run.” Etherum’s run has certainly been staggering. If it is fueling the ICO craze, we could be in for a long cycle.

Regardless, the point doesn’t mean that cryptomarkets are as they should be. That ICOs would eventually get ahead of themselves and bubble like so many young technology niches was predicted at least since last October. How long the good times will last isn’t obvious. But the correction will come, as always, and when it does, we’ll see which cryptos have a real shot.

Take this away

The cryptocurrency market is hot once again. And while it continues to set new records, a host of altcoins will demand its slice of the market. Should you buy into an ICO? Only if you have a massive appetite for risk, zero fear of losing your capital and are willing to take a flying chance on an idea that could flop. Then again, crowdfunding has similar risks and seems perfectly healthy. Your call.

Article Produced By
Alex Wilhelm

Alex Wilhelm is Crunchbase's Editor in Chief. He previously worked for The Next Web, TechCrunch, and Mattermark. Alex enjoys long walks on twitter boards, espresso, and responsive keyboards.

https://techcrunch.com/2017/05/23/wtf-is-an-ico/

How Can I Get Free Cryptocurrency From an Airdrop?

In the cryptocurrency space,

already prone to extreme levels of interest by digital money enthusiasts, some of the most-hyped events are airdrops. An airdrop is an event in which a cryptocurrency developer issues free coins or tokens to a user base, sometimes as a result of a hard fork and sometimes as part of a promotion or other change in network design. The key for most investors is becoming aware of the airdrop phenomenon before it takes place. If you find out too late, you've missed out on your chance for free tokens or coins. Fortunately, a report by decentralpost.com provides cryptocurrency investors with tools to gain more advanced notice about these special promotions and giveaways.

Airdrops That Take Place Alongside Hard Forks

One of the most common scenarios in which an airdrop is likely to take place is a hard fork of a major cryptocurrency. More than 20 bitcoin hard forks have taken place in the past year, for instance, and some of these resulted in investors who previously held bitcoin receiving new tokens for simply maintaining their investments. EtherZero, LitecoinCash, and MoneroV were projects that caused a similar level of investor sensation in recent months. In each of these cases, though, time showed that the forked coin was far less important than the original, and the new altcoin eventually lost interest and value.

Staying Apprised

How should an investor go about monitoring upcoming airdrops to make sure that he or she has access to the latest altcoin information? One of the first and most important tools is Twitter. This social media platform has become a hotbed for cryptocurrency investors, and it's common for a digital currency developer to provide information about an upcoming airdrop via a tweet. Investors may even regularly search for the phrase "airdrop" on Twitter, although this can provide a deluge of information that is difficult to sift through. For this reason, dedicated Twitter accounts like Crypto Airdrops and AirdropAlert can be useful.

Besides Twitter accounts dedicated to upcoming airdrops, information about these events can be found at a number of different websites. Of course, there is no guarantee that any information found on Twitter or on one of the sites above will be genuine, or that a newly issued digital currency will not be fraudulent, so investor caution is paramount.

Investing in cryptocurrencies and Initial Coin Offerings ("ICOs") is highly risky and speculative, and this article is not a recommendation by Investopedia or the writer to invest in cryptocurrencies or ICOs. Since each individual's situation is unique, a qualified professional should always be consulted before making any financial decisions. Investopedia makes no representations or warranties as to the accuracy or timeliness of the information contained herein. As of the date this article was written, the author owns bitcoin and ripple.

Article Produced By

Nathan Reiff

Nathan Reiff is a writer and musician based in the New York City area. He holds degrees from Yale University and the University of Michigan. Nathan has previously worked for Orion Consultants and Partners in Performance and has written for Internet Brands on subjects ranging from money matters to personal and home development. His interests include technology, travel, and food.

https://www.investopedia.com/news/how-can-i-get-free-cryptocurrency-airdrop/

What Is an ICO?

What Is an ICO?

An Initial Coin Offering,

also commonly referred to as an ICO, is a fundraising mechanism in which new projects sell their underlying crypto tokens in exchange for bitcoin and ether. It’s somewhat similar to an Initial Public Offering (IPO) in which investors purchase shares of a company.

ICOs are a relatively new phenomenon but have quickly become a dominant topic of discussion within the blockchain community. Many view ICO projects as unregulated securities that allow founders to raise an unjustified amount of capital, while others argue it is an innovation in the traditional venture-funding model. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has recently reached a decision regarding the status of tokens issued in the infamous DAO ICO which has forced many projects and investors to re-examine the funding models of many ICOs. The most important criteria to consider is whether or not the token passes the Howey test. If it does, it must be treated as a security and is subject to certain restrictions imposed by the SEC.

ICOs are easy to structure because of technologies like the ERC20 Token Standard, which abstracts a lot of the development process necessary to create a new cryptographic asset. Most ICOs work by having investors send funds (usually bitcoin or ether) to a smart contract that stores the funds and distributes an equivalent value in the new token at a later point in time.

There are few, if any, restrictions on who can participate in an ICO, assuming that the token is not, in fact, a security. And since you’re taking money from a global pool of investors, the sums raised in ICOs can be astronomical. A fundamental issue with ICOs is the fact that most of them raise money pre-product. This makes the investment extremely speculative and risky. The counter argument is that this fundraising style is particularly useful (even necessary) in order to incentivize protocol development. Before we get into a discussion over the merits of ICOs, it is important to have some historical context for how the trend started.

History of ICOs

Several projects used a crowdsale model to try and fund their development work in 2013. Ripple pre-mined 1 billion XRP tokens and sold them to willing investors in exchange for fiat currencies or bitcoin. Ethereum raised a little over $18 million in early 2014 — the largest ICO ever completed at that time. The DAO was the first attempt at fundraising for a new token on Ethereum. It promised to create a decentralized organization that would fund other blockchain projects, but it was unique in that governance decisions would be made by the token holders themselves. While the DAO was successful in terms of raising money — over $150 million — an unknown attacker was able to drain millions from the organization because of technical vulnerabilities. The Ethereum Foundation decided the best course of action was to move forward with a hard fork, allowing them to claw back the stolen funds.

Although the first attempt to fund a token safely on the Ethereum platform failed, blockchain developers realized that using Ethereum to launch a token was still much easier than pursuing seed rounds through the usual venture capital model. Specifically, the ERC20 standard makes it easy for developers to create their own cryptographic tokens on the Ethereum blockchain. Some argue that crowdfunding projects might be Ethereum’s “killer application” given the sheer size and frequency of ICOs. Never before have pre-product startups been able to raise this much money and in this little time. Aragon raised around $25 million in just 15 minutes, Basic Attention Token raised $35 million in only 30 seconds, and Status.im raised $270 million in a few hours. With few regulations and such ease of use, this ICO climate has come under scrutiny from many in the community as well as various regulatory bodies around the world.

Are ICOs Legal?

The short answer is maybe. Legally, ICOs have existed in an extremely gray area because arguments can be made both for and against the fact that they’re just new, unregulated financial assets. The SEC’s recent decision, however, has since managed to clear up some of that gray area. In some cases, the token is simply a utility token, meaning it gives the owner access to a specific protocol or network; thus it may not be classified as a financial security. On the other hand, if the token is an equity token, meaning that it’s only purpose is to appreciate in value, then it looks a lot more like a security.

While many individuals purchase tokens to access the underlying platform at some future point in time, it’s difficult to refute the idea that most token purchases are for speculative investment purposes. This is easy to ascertain given the valuation figures for many projects that have yet to release a commercial product. The SEC decision may have provided some clarity to the status of utility vs security tokens; however, there are still plenty of room for testing the boundaries of legalities. For now, and until further regulatory limits are imposed, entrepreneurs will continue to take advantage of this new phenomenon.

Article Produced By
Bitcoin Magazine

https://bitcoinmagazine.com/guides/what-ico/

What are Airdrops in Crypto World?

What are “Airdrops” in Crypto World?

Have you ever come across the term cryptocurrency airdrop

and wondered what it meant? Well, it’s nothing like the image you probably have in your head of an airplane dropping coins from the sky. In times of war, natural disaster, or other forms of crisis where the lives of people have been affected in places that are difficult to access by land, airdrops are carried out to provide essential supplies to people trapped in those zones. In the world of cryptocurrencies, airdrops have a different meaning. The cryptocurrency world has its own unique vocabulary which is expanding as the market evolves over time. In this article, cryptocurrency airdrops will be explained in detail.

Definition

Airdrops can be defined as the process whereby a cryptocurrency enterprise distributes cryptocurrency tokens to the wallets of some users free of charge. Airdrops are usually carried out by blockchain-based startups to bootstrap their cryptocurrency projects. Also, established blockchain-based enterprises like cryptocurrency exchange platforms and wallet services can also carry out airdrops as well.

Process Mechanism

There are basically two major types of airdrops; the ones that come as a surprise and the ones that are announced beforehand. For already established blockchain-based enterprises, they may choose to go the route of the former rather than the latter. Getting to know about it might depend on how involved one is in the crypto community. These are the types of airdrops that occur and have people commenting on online forums that their wallets have been credited with coins and no one is the wiser as to where the coins came from.

For blockchain-based startups, they mostly favor the route that involves pre-airdrop announcements to get the buzz going. Since the aim is mostly to bootstrap the project, the airdrop process usually involves the completion of a number of tasks by the user in order to qualify for the airdrop. When the date of the airdrop arrives, the enterprise will release the free tokens to the users who qualify.

Reasons for Carrying Out an Airdrop

From creating hype and buzz around a new blockchain-based enterprise to rewarding loyal customers, there are a number of reasons why a cryptocurrency airdrop is carried out. The following are some of the reasons for carrying out a cryptocurrency airdrop.

As a Reward for Loyal Customers

From time to time, blockchain-based services like cryptocurrency exchange and trading platforms, wallet service providers etc. wish to give back to their customers and subscribers. Airdrops can be used as a means of rewarding loyal customers with free cryptocurrency tokens. This serves as an incentive that can assure continued patronage on such platforms. This type of airdrop mirrors the voucher and discount giveaways of non-blockchain companies in the mainstream commercial world.

In 2017, the cryptocurrency exchange platform, Binance, carried out an airdrop of 500 TRX cryptocurrency to account holders on the platform. The airdrop lasted from the end of October 2017 to the middle of November 2017. In order to qualify for the airdrop an account holder needed to have at least 0.003 BTC in addition to having completed at least one transaction on the account. Binance account holders who had the equivalent of 0.003 BTC in other cryptocurrencies were also eligible for the airdrop as long as they fulfilled the transaction requirement.

To Generate Lead Database

Marketing is all about leads. Organizations tend to pay a lot of attention to generating appropriate leads that will drive their marketing campaigns and increase patronage. Airdrops can be used by blockchain-based enterprises to generate valuable lead databases for their organizations. In exchange for free cryptocurrency tokens, users will be asked to complete online forms that contain valuable user information which can be used to develop targeted marketing strategies. This application of airdrops to generating lead databases can even be utilized by none-blockchain enterprises.

To Create Awareness About a New Cryptocurrency

With the sheer size of the cryptocurrency market, a new cryptocurrency can go completely unnoticed if it isn’t given the right boost in terms of substantial marketing campaigns. Just like every other aspect of the digital world, hype and buzz play an important role in the cryptocurrency ecosystem. With many cryptocurrency enthusiasts looking for new cryptocurrency options, an airdrop is a great way to get people interested in a cryptocurrency.

The marketing campaigns on social media for an airdrop can lead to increased attention being paid to a new cryptocurrency. Word of mouth advertising and other forms of organic engagements brought about by an impending cryptocurrency airdrop can lead to increased user participation in the cryptocurrency. This can help to bootstrap a new cryptocurrency as seen in the case of Bitcoin Cash. After the Bitcoin fork that led to the creation of the Bitcoin Cash, the developers of Bitcoin Cash carried out an airdrop rewarding all of its users. For every bitcoin held by a Bitcoin Cash participant, the developers gave a corresponding amount of Bitcoin Cash. The end result was that in less than one month, Bitcoin Cash was among one of the top 10 cryptocurrencies in the market.

How to Get Involved in Airdrops

Getting involved in airdrops requires access to information and the ownership of a cryptocurrency wallet to receive the free coins. The first step is to sign up for online services that provide timely information about cryptocurrency airdrops. These include websites, Twitter accounts, Telegram groups, as well as online cryptocurrency airdrop forums. Some examples of such online services include Airdropaddict and Icodrops. These services provide vital information that will help users stay informed about upcoming cryptocurrency airdrops. They also provide information on the qualifying criteria for participating in the airdrops.FundYourselfNow also has an ongoing Airdrop Program .

Getting a cryptocurrency wallet is an essential part of being in the cryptocurrency market and that applies for airdrops as well. It is a good idea to get an ERC20 compatible multicurrency wallet since the majority of the cryptocurrency tokens in the market are ERC20 tokens. When participating in airdrops, it is important to be security conscious so as to not fall a victim of fraudulent airdrop campaigns. Some airdrops are designed to hack wallets and steal private keys. Always confirm the authenticity of a cryptocurrency airdrop campaign before participating in it.

Article Produced By

FundYourselfNow